Title: The Perfect timing to sell your stocks

Word Count:
458

Summary:
I will guide you through the best way and timing for selling your stocks at maximum cost with minimum risk.

Keywords:
stocks, stock market

Article Body:
While quite a bit of time and research goes into selecting stocks, it is often hard to know when to pull out – especially for first time investors. The good news is that if you have chosen your stocks carefully, you won’t need to pull out for a very long time, such as when you are ready to retire. But there are specific instances when you will need to sell your stocks before you have reached your financial goals.

You may think that the time to sell is when the stock value is about to drop – and you may even be advised by your broker to do this. But this isn’t necessarily the right course of action.

Stocks go up and down all the time, depending on the economy…and of course the economy depends on the stock market as well. This is why it is so hard to determine whether you should sell your stock or not. Stocks go down, but they also tend to go back up.

You have to do more research, and you have to keep up with the stability of the companies that you invest in. Changes in corporations have a profound impact on the value of the stock. For instance, a new CEO can affect the value of stock. A plummet in the industry can affect a stock. Many things – all combined – affect the value of stock. But there are really only three good reasons to sell a stock.

The first reason is having reached your financial goals. Once you’ve reached retirement, you may wish to sell your stocks and put your money in safer financial vehicles, such as a savings account.

This is a common practice for those who have invested for the purpose of financing their retirement. The second reason to sell a stock is if there are major changes in the business you are investing in that cause, or will cause, the value of the stock to drop, with little or no possibility of the value rising again. Ideally, you would sell your stock in this situation before the value starts to drop.

If the value of the stock spikes, this is the third reason you may want to sell. If your stock is valued at $100 per share today, but drastically rises to $200 per share next week, it is a great time to sell – especially if the outlook is that the value will drop back down to $100 per share soon. You would sell when the stock was worth $200 per share.

As a beginner, you definitely want to consult with a broker or a financial advisor before buying or selling stocks. They will work with you to help you make the right decisions to reach your financial goals.

Title: The Need for Diversification in the Stock Market

Word Count:
997

Summary:
Diversify or Die

Keywords:
stocks, stock market, stock investing, stock quotes, share, new york stock exchange, investing, investing basics, investing stocks, share price, investing stock market, wall street, stock information, buy stock, stock research, stock exchange, buy st

Article Body:
Copyright 2006 Richard Stoyeck

Why is it that some people only buy one or two stocks? Others may have 15 stocks but have 50 percent of their investment assets in just one of those 15 stocks. In Wall Street we refer to this type of behavior as concentration. Some firms call it over-concentration. When this happens in a brokerage firm it is always considered dangerous. It is so dangerous, in fact, that if the brokerage firm is using a concentrated stock position as capital, then the market value of the security in question is given a haircut. This means that the full market value of the security is chopped by some fixed percentage in any capital computation. In other words, if you are over-concentrated, you don’t get full value. Some of you may have margin accounts. As you know, StocksAtBottom.com advocates cash ownership of stocks. If you own stocks on margin, it is our opinion that you will get sold out on margin. Normally in a margin account you put up 50 percent of the value of the stock you acquire in cash. If equity falls below 35 percent, you get a margin call. Now, brokerage firms love it when clients have 15 or 20 different stocks in a margin account. If there are some bonds in that account, guess what, they love it even more. Why? Because brokerage firms know that stocks represent risky investments. Something can always go wrong in any one situation. Maybe something can go wrong in any two situations. It’s tough to see something go wrong in 15 situations. That is the essence of diversification. SPREAD THE RISK AROUND. It makes a lot of sense. Some investors own 50 to 100 stocks. This is because they think they need that many to achieve the investment goals that they set out for themselves. In business school at a master’s degree level they teach you that to achieve true diversification you need to own something approaching 14 equity positions. It has been the experience of StocksAtBottom.com that 6 to 10 different equity positions is sufficient to achieve diversification. The one thing we know for sure is that it’s not one stock or two stocks. Own one or two and you get killed.

Putting all your eggs in one basket We advise all investors to own several stocks and to own more than one sector. Own more than one type of investment (that means equities, bonds, real estate, cash, you get the picture) or you will have problems. Sectors refer to stocks with broad themes. Examples are: * Energy * Semi-conductors * Housing * Auto * Consumer * Airlines * Personal Computers * Technology in general If you own 10 stocks, but they fall into only 2 sectors then you really have not achieved diversity in your portfolio. You see, when they come to get Ford Motor, usually General Motors is not that far behind. By the way, it’s great on the upside to own everything in one sector when that sector is going your way. There’s probably not a greater high in the world than when everything you own is going up. On the flip side, when you are overly concentrated in a sector that’s heading down, lower and lower every day, there is no worse emotional low. The depression can be almost unbelievable. There’s also the issue of owning more than one type of investment. There are equity investments, which are stocks. There are real estate investments, and bond investments. There are also venture capital investments, precious metals, and others such as oil and gas. To a large extent, you achieve diversity in your investment strategies by owning different types of investments, as well as investing in different sectors. Let’s go into a few real life examples. We at StocksAtBottom.com believe we have already made the equivalent of a lifetime of investing mistakes, so learn from a few of ours.

Arrow Electronics It was Christmas week in the early 1980’s. One of us was sitting at Bear Stearns as a limited partner at the time. We were doing very well as stockbrokers. It was the period of full commissions (no discounting), and clients were doing 10,000 share trades in $50 dollar stocks. Taking home an income of $500,000 to $1,000,000 in a year was no big deal at the time. We were loaded up on Arrow Electronics, a NYSE company in the semi-conductor sector. Business was fantastic, the future was bright, and things could not have been better. Since we were involved on the banking side as well, we had an open line of communication to the company. We knew we had a good thing going. The telephone rang on one of those beautiful days prior to Christmas when New York City is the place to be, Rockefeller Center all lit up with a 50 foot Christmas tree and all. “Hello.” A harried response, “There’s been a fire at the Tarrytown Hilton Executive Center, a lot of people are dead.” “Okay, that’s terrible, how does it affect me and by the way, what’s for lunch today?” “Buddy, you don’t understand,” the dead pan voice says. “What don’t I understand?” “The entire executive leadership of Arrow Electronics was in that fire.” All of them, every one of them had been killed by this monstrous tragedy. It was the worst Christmas imaginable for the wonderful families of this dedicated group of execs. The families never recovered, the company never recovered in terms of the people that were left, and the stock took years to recover. It plummeted from $32 per share to $4 per share in a matter of days. The recovery was slow and hard, it was agony all the way back on this particular stock. Arrow Electronics is an example of putting all your eggs in one basket. It is an example of owning just one stock. SAB does not care how much you know about a company, things can go wrong and do go wrong. You simply cannot own just one company because the risk on the downside is too great. YOU MUST DIVERSIFY IN ORDER TO SPREAD THE RISK.

Title: The Interesting History Of The Stock Market

Word Count:
743

Summary:
Talking about the Stock Market we seem to mean a different dimension, not a physical location.
However, the Stock Market does have physical locations.

Wall Street, also known as the Dow, or the NYSE, is located in New York

Wall Street is the Address(or is it?)

Many people think of Wall Street and the Stock Market as one in the same, and indeed, it used to be that way.

Keywords:
stock market, investing, daytrading, forex

Article Body:
Talking about the Stock Market we seem to mean a different dimension, not a physical location.
However, the Stock Market does have physical locations.

Wall Street, also known as the Dow, or the NYSE, is located in New York

Wall Street is the Address(or is it?)

Many people think of Wall Street and the Stock Market as one in the same, and indeed, it used to be that way.

Dutch settlers initially built a stockade here in 1653 for defense purposes.
In 1685 the stockade was torn down and a street was built called Wall Street.
In 1790 the first Stock Exchange was founded in Philadelphia which became the model for the New York Stock Exchange.

In 1817 the NYSE was officially opened.
The NYSE was moderately successful till the early 1900’s when the market entered a boom period which lasted more or less until 1929.

This boom period of course could not last forever, things were so out of kilter that people were mortgaging their homes and leveraging themselves to the limit to buy shares.
The boom period crashed in 1929 and caused the Great Depression.

The 1929 Crash was caused in part by the fact that the Stock Market was virtually unregulated, which it remained even until after the market crash of 1987 which saw the Dow suffer what was the largest losing day in the Market’s history.

Black Tuesday – October 29th, 1929

On Black Tuesday, a record of 16.4 million shares were traded and the ticker tape fell behind two and a half hours. On Monday, the stock market suffered a record one-day loss of around 13 percent. On Black Tuesday, the market suffered a loss of about 12 percent and did not recover for 22 years.

The economy eventually recovered from its catastrophic losses but the unregulated Stock Market practices that had partially caused the crash in the 1929 still existed and caused the stock market crash of 1987, which saw the Dow Jones suffer what was the largest single-day loss in the stock market’s history.

Today’s Stock Market

Today’s stock market consists of about 500,000 computers all networked with dealers for the NYSE or market makers for the NASDAQ. Up until recently the Dow still used human intervention but at present all trades are computerized.

The 2 most important stock market networks are the NYSE and NASDAQ.
NASDAQ is a relatively new Stock Trading System that has been computerized since its inception, where market makers normally lead trades.

It used to be that more risky stocks were traded on the NASDAQ than on the NYSE, but that distinction is fading.

The difference between the NYSE and Nasdaq is in the way securities on the exchanges are transacted between buyers and sellers.

The Nasdaq is a dealer’s market, wherein market participants are not buying from and selling to one another but to and from a dealer, which, in the case of the Nasdaq, is a market maker.

The NYSE is an auction market, wherein individuals are typically buying and selling to each other and there is an auction happening; the highest bidding price will be matched with the lowest asking price.

All these computers are linked to computers worldwide. These computers can be found in banks, small businesses, and large corporations.

These computers comprise the banking networks which make computerized transactions possible.
To give you an idea as to how much gets traded: in New York City Stock Market Trades amount to over $2.2 trillion dollars daily

How has the U.S. Stock Market done in Times of War?

The worst Stock Market returns were achieved during the Vietnam War.If this happened because of the uncertainty of the times is a good question. Stock Markets do not like uncertainty and will act negatively.

Returns during the Korean War however were excellent and averaged about 18% per year while 2nd world war returns averaged about 13% per year.

The 1987 Stock Market Crash

The crash of 1987 was one of the most remarkable financial catastrophies of the 20th century, perhaps since the start of the financial system several centuries ago. Why it was so strange because it should not have happened and even today we cannot fully comprehend that it did happen.

Markets fell, an unbelievable 23%, and that they did so all over the world at the same time.
It only lasted one day.

There is no explanation. No definite reason for the crash has been isolated.
The best that one can say is that there were too many similarities to the 1929 crash and that this became a self-fulfilling prophecy.

Title: The Importance Of Timing In Forex And The Stock Market

Word Count:
1407

Summary:
When we make money from the Forex we are looking for economic data which will influence the price of currencies. But when we are looking for good companies to invest in on the stock market we have been told to “Buy the blue chips.” “Blue chips” are the big,reliable companies, and obviously these are listed for the most part on the New York Stock Exchange.

The Dow Jones Average is composed of blue chips, and since there are only 30 listed, at the same time that the average …

Keywords:
forex,forex software,forex trading software,forex tips,forex broker,stock market,shares,investing

Article Body:
When we make money from the Forex we are looking for economic data which will influence the price of currencies. But when we are looking for good companies to invest in on the stock market we have been told to “Buy the blue chips.” “Blue chips” are the big,reliable companies, and obviously these are listed for the most part on the New York Stock Exchange.

The Dow Jones Average is composed of blue chips, and since there are only 30 listed, at the same time that the average has been going up, it might seem a simple matter to toss a coin to see which ones should be bought out of this list of 30.

But let us get down to specific cases: Standard Oil Company of New Jersey is one of the largest, best managed and generally soundest corporations in the United States. Its earnings per share in 1958 were $2.72, in 1959 $2.91 and in 1960 $3.18. From 1957 through 1960 its dividends have been $2.25 per share each year. From the middle of 1957 to the end of 1960 the price trend of this stock was down. It declined from almost 70 to a point below 40.

Another giant on the list of 30 Dow Jones stocks is the highly successful General Electric. From a high in early 1960 of nearly 100, GE plummeted to a level of close to 60 in the spring of 1961 because of the actions of the United States government in connection with price fixing by the corporation.

There is some merit to the classical approach to the valuation of a stock by analyzing the underlying strength and prospects of the company, but this is only * An example of a high yield tax free bond is the Chesapeake Bay Bridge and Tunnel Authority 5¾% bond. In 1961 this bond could be bought under 100 to yield almost 6% and this 6% is equal to 12% for a man whose top income is taxed at a rate of 50%.

one of the elements to look at. It, of course, should not be overlooked because in the long run, earnings per share will determine the price of a stock. The only question is, “How long?” While you are holding a sound company’s stock others may be moving up and you want to move up with them.

Determine the earnings trend of the company over the recent four or five years. It should be up in general, but stocks have moved up in price while earnings were declining.

Determine the position of the industry through reading the Wall Street Journal, the financial and business section of The New York Times, the Value Line Investment Survey, and the journals published by every industry and available in any library. The reason Standard Oil of New Jersey was not moving up more rapidly is due to the fact that the outlook for the petroleum industry was not as healthy as some of the other industries.

The most important piece of advice that can be given the investor in stock is that the price of a stock is the direct result of the forces which make the price of anything (stock, commodity or service) demand and supply. For a long time in the spring of 19611 thought GE was a good buy; that it might go up. I questioned a number of brokers and investment bankers about GE. There was a distinct lack of enthusiasm. Since these are the buyers and these are the people who recommend that customers buy the stock, it was evident to me that the demand was not there. It might change very quickly, but until it did I determined to buy other stocks.

It is important to emphasize this point once again: that the price of a stock is the direct result of how much of a stock is offered for sale and what the demand is. We will return later to this point with a striking example.

The next most important piece of advice is that you should buy a stock which is moving up, not one which might move up or one which is moving down and looks as though it might be a bargain. You cannot hope to buy at the bottom and sell at the top. If you try to buy at the bottom you have no assurance that the decline has stopped; and if you try to sell at the top you cannot be certain the rise will not continue. Buy just after a stock has demonstrated its willingness to rise for a few weeks, and sell after about two weeks of decline.

The most foolish piece of philosophizing that an investor can engage in is to say to himself, “I don’t need to worry about the declining trend in the price of my stock. It will come back.” Yes, it may, but when? And if you sold and simply held cash, you might for your cash get far more shares with which to ride the market up again. At the beginning of 1960 Shell Oil was well over 40. By the summer it was down close to 30, and by the spring of 1961 it was close to 45. The downtrend was clear and the uptrend was just as clear. A person could have sold early in the decline and bought early in the rise. My wife, being as good an analyst as I, if not a little better through”intuition,” hit the low point and advised buying at that point. A profit of 50% could have been realized in one year!

Next, follow the market and follow it every few days to determine trend. The closer you are to the market the better you are informed as to what to do. Do not worry about a decline of a few days or a sudden break in the market, no matter how sharp. Worry only about the trend of your stock and the trend of the market.

Use the stop loss order to protect yourself against losses and to provide you with peace of mind. When you purchase stock after careful study and consideration, you may not want to put in an immediate stop loss order which is an order to sell if the stock reaches a particular price below the present market. In the past I have placed stop loss orders, when I bought stock, at about two points under my purchase price. If I bought a stock at 501 put in a stop loss order at 48. Very often the stock went down to 48 and I was sold out. I lost both in the price of the stock and in the commission and tax I had to pay when I bought and when I sold.

Then I had the unhappy experience of seeing my stock rise above 50 and keep on rising. If an investor followed the rule of placing a stop loss order a few points under the purchase price, he could hardly ever purchase a stock that jumps around like O’okiep Copper.

This stock jumps up and down two points during one trading session.

If a stock goes up say 10 points, you may place a stop loss order three or four points under the market. This still prevents a loss and you have already made a good profit in the stock. The strict trailing stop loss order may hurt you not only by getting you out of a rising stock on a minor decline, but the use of trailing stop loss orders by the general investing public damages the market. A slight drop in price of a stock can touch off a series of stop loss orders which lower the price of the stock needlessly.

The major value of having a stock market is the provision of a place in which to buy and a place in which to sell with little delay and at a price which can to a great extent be known in advance. For this reason stocks listed on the New York Stock Exchange and on the American Stock Exchange offer a great advantage to the investor. He knows where he stands by looking at the daily paper, and he has liquidity. He can get his money out of the stock in a matter of minutes.

With the Forex our money is just as liquid and we stand to make more money in a shorter space of time, and we can put a stop loss to protect our position.

Good software will help us predict future price movements in currencies and help us time our purchases and sales of currencies for maximum profit.

Title: The First Step You Have to Take to Get Rich In the Stock Market!

Word Count:
466

Summary:
Don’t let Wall Street control you mind!

Keywords:
Stock market, stock investing

Article Body:
I am widely recognized as a leading expert in the stock market and especially at teaching you how to become your neighbor’s millionaire next door. I didn’t start out as knowledgeable and skilled as I am now. I started out knowing nearly nothing. I was so inexperienced in my early twenties that I could only stand by when a full service stock broker stole $85,000 from my eighty year old grandmother. I watched the nationwide stock brokerage protect the interests of the full service broker and my grandmother lost everything.

The pain of this was so intense that it drove me to complete my Ph.D. in finance — less than a hundred of us graduate in this degree worldwide annually because it is so mathematically difficult. My frustration and anger at the big rich forces behind Wall Street drove me to become a modern day master of money. This is what you have to do — wake up!!! Wake up to the fact that you can make it as a stock investor. Wake up to the fact that you control your destiny and that you can stop handing all of the control over to the Wall Street machine that could absolutely care less about your financial future. This is the first step — take full responsibility for you earnings, savings and investment.

I learned years ago from a friend of mine, Dr. Van Tharp, Ph.D., that if I didn’t take full responsibility for my investing that I would never progress — I would simply break the fragile feedback loop that allows all of us to learn from our mistakes. Any time you blame anyone for a financial mistake you destroy the opportunity to learn and thrive from the situation. The simple decision you must make is to deeply, totally, firmly, and finally, say to your self, “I am the master of my universe — I am in control — Wall Street has no power over my mind” is the key critical change you must make in your thinking.

Some people will think that you are arrogant but just blow them off and laugh all the way to the bank. Stop listening to people — are these nosy little bug a bugs in your life that so quickly nay say your investment dreams paying your bills or giving you money to move ahead — no so blow them off! They just want to give you bad advice so that you fall into their same financial loser traps. In terms of investing become an island unto yourself and very carefully cultivate relationships with people who really do know what they are doing in investing. This is exactly what I did. I started seeking out people who really understand the markets. I found them over time and I asked them lots of questions.

Title: The Evaluation Of Stocks

Word Count:
738

Summary:
In order to effectively invest your money into stocks of any kind, you must know all of your stock options so that you can efficiently earn money. Because stocks are simply small shares of a company, the more stocks you purchase to more you own of a certain company. For example, if you purchase 100,000 stocks in AutoZone, an automotive store, you would have more say in what takes place in the company that someone who only purchases 1,000 shares of AutoZones stock. There are t…

Keywords:
online stock trading,stock market trading,stock investing,stock quote

Article Body:
In order to effectively invest your money into stocks of any kind, you must know all of your stock options so that you can efficiently earn money. Because stocks are simply small shares of a company, the more stocks you purchase to more you own of a certain company. For example, if you purchase 100,000 stocks in AutoZone, an automotive store, you would have more say in what takes place in the company that someone who only purchases 1,000 shares of AutoZones stock. There are two main types of stock in that, you, the investor should become familiar with so that you can properly purchase the stock that is right for you and your monetary situation.

Common Stock

Basically stated, a common stock is, well, common! When you hear people talking about stocks in general, it is these types of stocks in that they are referring. It is simply a piece of paper that represents some degree of ownership of a corporation as well as some form of profit from that particular company. Interestingly enough, investors in common stocks receive one vote per stock owned to elect board members, the people who oversee major decisions made for the company as a whole, for a particular company. In the long- term, this type of stock means capital growth for the investor, however, if the company is forced into bankruptcy, the investor will not get paid what they are owed until creditors, bondholders, and preferred stockholders receive their payments.

Preferred Stock

In general, preferred stock is stock that is owned by preferred stockholders in that all of the companys earnings and assets go directly to the preferred stockholders first. Because preferred stockholders are paid before common stockholders, preferred stockholders choose to give up their right to vote in the election of board members. For this reason, preferred stockholders have no right in the selection process of the company. Preferred stockholders purchase stock in a certain company for monetary gain only in that their main goal in investment is earning a return on investment. Of course, there are four variations on preferred stock investments.

Voting – Preferred stock members can opt for the right to vote in a company in that they own stock. By doing this, they ensure the power to make sure that they receive all monies owed to them because they are able to bribe people into places of management. For example, Bob is a preferred stockholder who wants to ensure that his profits are paid to him no matter what happens to the company. Bob tells Tom, a man up for board election, that he will make sure Tom wins the election as long as Tom agrees to pay Bob his profits, whether the company goes into bankruptcy or not.

Adjustable Rates – Preferred stockholders receive an agreed upon profit based on stipulations provided by the company.

Convertible Stock – Preferred stockholders have the right to convert their preferred stock into common stock, allowing the investor to lock in their profit while they potentially profit from a rise in common stock. Basically, preferred stockholders are protected no matter what types of investment decisions they make.

Participating Stock – With this type of stock, preferred stockholders not only receive a set profit, but they are eligible for a certain percentage of the companys earned profit over a set period of time.

For this reason, it may seem that a preferred stockholder position is the way to go, however, with increased power comes more headaches. If you are a beginning investor, it is better to work on common stocks for a number of years before trying to get involved with preferred stocks.

Because common stocks and preferred stocks are so different, companies are not allowed to customize either type of the stocks. The reason for this is that some companies may be corrupt and want the voting power to remain with certain investors. Companies are held under law to make sure that the voting power remains fair among both common stockholders and preferred stockholders.

It is your money and your choice, however, it is suggested that you become educated when playing with the stock market. It is important to know precisely what stocks are as well as the main characteristics of a common stock as well as a preferred stock. As with any investment, the ultimate goal is to gain a profit and this can only be done with stocks if you thoroughly understand them.

Title: The Different Types of Stock Markets

Word Count:
435

Summary:
There are many different stock markets in the US. In most circumstances, the main markets that you will hear of are the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), the American Stock Exchange (AMEX) and the NASDAQ.

Keywords:
investment,stock market

Article Body:
There are many different stock markets in the US. In most circumstances, the main markets that you will hear of are the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), the American Stock Exchange (AMEX) and the NASDAQ.

The markets are basically where people and companies trade securities. The market is the arena in which the players gather to trade.

The New York Stock Exchange has been around since 1792. It is located on Wall Street in New York City. The NYSE is the largest and best-known stock exchange in the country. It also has very stringent requirements for companies to join its listings. A company must be financially strong and show signs of being an industry leader to join the NYSE. Companies strive to belong to this market, and even pay annual fees for membership.

When a brokerage describes itself as a member of the NYSE it means that the firm has bought a seat on the floor of the NYSE. This means that there is actually a employee on the floor of the exchange buying and selling stock. This is an expensive investment for a firm, costing well over a million dollars.

The American Stock Exchange is similar to the NYSE in that it conducts its trading on a trading floor. The floor is filled with traders who buy and sell securities. The AMEX has been located in Manhattan since 1921. It is known as a major exchange for not only stocks, but also options. You will tend to find slightly riskier and smaller stocks listed on the AMEX, which operates under the NASDAQ-AMEX Market Group, a subsidiary of the National Association of Security Dealers.

NASDAQ, or the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations, is the youngest of the three major markets. It may also be the one you have heard the most about through the news. It lists just about every stock in the industry, but it is best known for listing technology companies. In fact, it is where you will find many major technology stocks, including Microsoft and Intel. It was launched in 1971 and was the first over-the-counter stock market. It links buyers and sellers via a computer network.

Brokers and dealers will market the stocks by maintaning an inventory in their own accounts. They will buy or sell when they receive an order from an investor. You will find that start up companies that are issuing stock in an initial public offering will often list on the NASDAQ.

When it comes to buying stock, knowing where to find certain types of stock is important. Each market often specializes in slightly different types of stocks.

Title: The Basics Of Short Selling Stocks

Word Count:
513

Summary:
‘Shorting’ or short selling refers to the selling of a contract, a bond or stock or a commodity that is not directly owned by the seller. When practicing short selling, a seller is committed to purchase the stock or commodity previously sold.

Short selling stocks means to take the stock from a broker on loan and sell it off to someone else. This is done so that the seller buys back the stock, when the price falls. The shares are returned to the broker from whom they were i…

Keywords:
stocks, shares, investment, penny, market, costs, increase, trade, profit, short, shorting

Article Body:
‘Shorting’ or short selling refers to the selling of a contract, a bond or stock or a commodity that is not directly owned by the seller. When practicing short selling, a seller is committed to purchase the stock or commodity previously sold.

Short selling stocks means to take the stock from a broker on loan and sell it off to someone else. This is done so that the seller buys back the stock, when the price falls. The shares are returned to the broker from whom they were initially borrowed. The shorting profit or the difference in price goes to the seller. Short selling of stocks is a technique used by investors to capitalize on a probable decline in the stock price.

To understand this better, let us consider a company, say, ABC whose shares currently sell at $12 each. A short seller borrows 50 shares of ABC and then sells those shares to someone else at $12 per share, for a total of $600. Now, if in future the price of shares of ABC falls to $10 per share, this short seller would then buy back those 50 shares at $500 ($10 multiplied by 50 shares), send back the shares to the original owner/broker and make a profit of $100.

Short selling is risky, if the price per share goes up instead of declining, as expected. Suppose the price per share of ABC goes up to $15 per share, then the short seller will have to cash in the previously sold 50 shares at $750, return the shares to the original owner and incur a loss of $150.

Shorting is a transaction done on margin. Most brokers do not agree to short selling stocks below $5. This enables the investors and short sellers to indulge in the high-risk trading of stocks.

Some of the following market situations help to predict a fall in price of stocks: –

– Market indexes coming near the prior resistance levels.
– Market trend showing technically overbought levels.
– Restlessness before the announcement of a state’s government.
– Market vulnerability during scandals.

Large volume selling of stocks often result in short-term high profits. However, there are certain guidelines to be followed for successful short selling. They are:

– All stocks are not ‘short’ able. Generally, brokers inform a seller whether a stock can be used for short selling or not.

– Sellers must open a margin account for short selling. This depends on the minimum balances and cash reserves. Sellers are required to sign a contract agreement with the brokers to open a margin account. This agreement clearly states that a seller will follow the rules and regulations stated by the broker.

-Target bad-performance, overpriced companies, since the probability of a fall in the share price involves lesser risk.

– Traders and short sellers should use stop orders to protect their capital from loss. Generally, brokers prevent a seller from suffering loss more than the principal. They may either compel the seller to quit the transaction or they may deposit funds to increase the seller’s capital.

The short selling of stocks involves a lot of discipline. Sellers need to be proactive, alert and disciplined when shorting stocks.

Title: The Basics Of Investing In Stocks And Shares

Word Count:
504

Summary:
Stocks can be considered a tool for building wealth, as they are a part of almost every investment portfolio. They represent the ownership of a company and are bought in the form of shares. Shares refer to the stock of a particular company. Your stake in a company depends on how many shares you possess, because these are considered a part of the company’s capital.

The popularity of investing in the stock market is increasing constantly. Today, investment in stocks and shar…

Keywords:
invest, investment, stocks, shares, mutual, market, retire, increase, options, value, valuation

Article Body:
Stocks can be considered a tool for building wealth, as they are a part of almost every investment portfolio. They represent the ownership of a company and are bought in the form of shares. Shares refer to the stock of a particular company. Your stake in a company depends on how many shares you possess, because these are considered a part of the company’s capital.

The popularity of investing in the stock market is increasing constantly. Today, investment in stocks and shares is not limited to the well to do; even the average middle-class is getting into it in droves. The opening up of markets with advanced trading technologies has made owning shares easy for everyone. However, if you are planning to invest, do not depend on luck to get you returns. Investment in stocks is considered a very risky affair. It requires a high rate of return. You need to use a well thought out strategy and necessary tools to invest in the share market.

The allure of investing in shares and stocks, however, does not mean that every would-be investor has the know-how of this often-slippery market. If you feel that the get-rich-quick theory applies to stocks and shares, then it is a misguided notion, because stocks are not the answer to instant wealth. Just like the real estate market, the share market also involves a lot of risk. Yet, people are often under the misconception that they will get rich instantly if they invest in shares.

You can buy a share in a stock when a company first enlists on the stock market – that is, at flotation or privatization. Alternatively, you can purchase shares once they are in circulation and are traded.

You could go to a stockbroker if you want to buy stocks. Stockbrokers do business with the stock exchange. They hold the shares in an account that is created in the name of the nominee. You can also keep your shares in the form of a paper certificate. Once the buying and selling of shares is over the transaction is made complete through an electronic system. This system is responsible for linking all the banks along with the stockbroker and registrars of the respective companies.

You can invest in international stocks as well. When a company performs trading in a stock market of another country, their stocks are known as International stocks. These stocks are traded like the UK stocks or, for that matter those traded in the Nasdaq in the US. All the stock exchanges in the world work in the same manner.

There is no guarantee when it comes to Investment in stocks but if you are ready to take a big risk then you can expect great returns on your investment. Despite the risk factor this form of investment has outperformed other investment options like bonds or saving accounts. So if you have the right strategy and you make the right moves in the stock market then nothing can stop the money from rolling in.

Title: The Advantages of Trading Options Over Stocks

Word Count:
979

Summary:
Stocks have been likened like playing the game checkers where options are compared to the game chess because of the tremendous opportunity and flexibility that they can give traders and investors. Stock and option traders that take the time to learn and apply a few simple strategies offered by options can better assess risks in the markets and potentially put themselves into positions to profit handsomely.

Keywords:
online stock trading, stock trading, option trading, stock market, option trader

Article Body:
Copyright 2006 Billy Williams

In the investing world, trillions of dollars worth of shares are bought and sold each day on the major exchanges all over the world. On any given day, traders and investors can take part in the purest form of capitalism by putting their money at risk by buying into any of the major global corporations across the planet in the pursuit of profit. Yet, there is another way of speculating, trading options, which can be far superior to just trading the shares of a given company.

An option is a derivative on an underlying security that gives the right, but not necessarily the obligation, to buy the underlying security at a given set price. They come with different strike prices, expiration dates, and allow tremendous leverage as each option controls up to 100 shares of stock in a particular company. These advantages make options a far superior trading instrument than just trading stocks.

One advantage is leverage. Leverage is the ability to use a small amount of capital to control a huge asset. Like in real estate, where a small down payment allows a prospective buyer to control a huge piece of property, options allow the trader to control up to 100 shares of stock for with just a tiny bit of capital or, in this case, it is called the option’s “premium” which is the actual cost of the option.

Let’s look at an example of how options are superior to stocks in when using leverage. If you notice that ABC stock is set to rally higher and is trading at $50 a share and you then buy 100 shares of stock for a total of $5,000. A few weeks later, ABC stock has rallied to $60 a share and you sell all your shares you will have profited $1000 or a 20% return. Not too bad.

But a friend of yours sees the same setup in ABC stock and decides instead to buy an option with a $50 strike price which is priced a $2 premium for a total cost of $200 ($2 X 100 shares = $200). ABC stock rallies to $60 and your friend sells his $50 strike option for $1200 which is a 500% return! That’s the power of leverage when trading options.

Another advantage is that a trader can generate income by using credit spreads with options. If you see that ABC stock is in a trading range and is staying above support at say around $50 a share you can create a credit spread by creating what is called a Bull Put Spread. You sell the current month’s $50 put option and pocket the premium you received and then purchase the current month’s $45 put option for insurance in case the stock plummets unexpectedly. Then sit back and let the options reach their expiration date and you collect the difference between the premium received for selling the $50 put option and the cost of purchasing the $45 put option.

ABC stock can go up or stay around $50 and the position would make money. It could even decline below $50 equal to the cost of the premium that was received and the position would break even! The only time the position could lose money is if it declined below this breakeven point. Many option traders specialize in these types of option spreads only and generate often generate steady returns of 10% to 90% per position!

A third advantage is options also give you the ability to short stocks without the restrictions of short-selling stocks. When you short a stock in the anticipation that it will go down in price you not only have a larger cash outlay versus buying put options but you also have to pay interest on the stock you borrowed to short plus you have to pay the dividends back that the stock might pay during the time you hold it. With put options, you avoid all that plus you can make faster returns and much sooner since the stocks will usually fall twice as fast as they rise.

Additionally, if a stock is rumored to miss its earning projections you can make a lot of money quick by playing negative earning releases in the right market environment. The reason is that stocks can often gap down by 50% or more on bad news. That translates into a hug profit to a smart option trader without tying up a lot of capital.

That also brings up the most important advantage is that the most you risk is the actual premium you paid for the option itself. If a stock gaps up or down on news and you’re on the other side of that trade you only risk a small amount of you capital where if you had bought the stock you could lose half your position overnight! Early in 2006, Google reported strong earnings but not as great as Wall Street had expected and the stock was pummeled. Then a few weeks later, Google’s Chief Financial Officer spoke publicly about a temporary pullback in their future growth and the stock plummeted. If an options trader were long Google call options at that time that trader would have only lost a small portion of his overall trading capital versus someone who had bought the stock itself (Google’s stock had been as high as $475 before these events and then lost almost a 150 points in a couple of weeks as a result).

The advantages written here are only a few compared to the dozens that options afford traders who are disciplined enough to learn them. Stocks have been likened like playing the game checkers where options are compared to the game chess because of the tremendous opportunity and flexibility that they can give traders and investors. Stock and option traders that take the time to learn and apply a few simple strategies offered by options can better assess risks in the markets and potentially put themselves into positions to profit handsomely.